Limiting factors in hygienic water distribution systems
Every pharmaceutical manufacturing facility requires a pure water supply, which enables the chemical and/or microbiological quality of the water used in production to be carefully controlled. Various pure water grades are used universally in product manufacture and pharmaceutical processing.
In many cases water is often part of the product itself, and in others pure water might be a process intermediate, or used for equipment washing or cleaning of vessels and facilities for example.
The typical and common bulk grades of water employed are Purified Water (PW) and Water for Injections (WFI) which are compendial grades described in all Pharmacoepias, even though their origins and qualities can vary slightly. As a result, each pharmaceutical facility, whether it is manufacturing bulk API, secondary products, steriles, non-steriles etc is likely to have at least one pure water system within its suite of critical utilities.
Pure Water Systems<...
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